10 Essential Steps For Exploring Chiang Mai – Visit Wat Chiang Man And More

Just imagine wandering through the ancient streets of Chiang Mai, soaking in the culture and history at every turn. In this imperative guide, we will explore into 10 crucial steps to make the most of your exploration in this enchanting city. From visiting the impressive Wat Chiang Man temple to savouring local delicacies at the bustling markets, there’s something for every adventurer in Chiang Mai. Let’s uncover the hidden gems and must-see attractions that will make your trip an unforgettable experience.

Key Takeaways:

  • Visit Wat Chiang Man: Begin your exploration of Chiang Mai by visiting the oldest temple in the city, Wat Chiang Man, to marvel at its beautiful architecture and rich history.
  • Explore the Old City: Wander through the charming streets of the Old City, where you can discover ancient temples, bustling markets, and traditional architecture.
  • Discover the Night Bazaar: Experience the vibrant atmosphere of Chiang Mai’s Night Bazaar, where you can shop for local crafts, taste delicious street food, and immerse yourself in the city’s culture.
  • Learn Thai Cooking: Take a cooking class to learn how to prepare traditional Thai dishes using fresh ingredients and authentic recipes, and bring a taste of Chiang Mai home with you.
  • Go on a Trekking Adventure: Explore the lush jungles and picturesque landscapes surrounding Chiang Mai on a trekking adventure, where you can encounter local wildlife and experience the natural beauty of northern Thailand.

Step 1: Acclimatise to Chiang Mai’s Climate

Preparing for the Heat and Humidity

While exploring Chiang Mai, one of the first things that will strike you is the climate. The city has a tropical wet and dry climate, which means it can get hot and humid, particularly during the summer months. To prepare for the heat and humidity, make sure to pack light, breathable clothing made from natural fabrics such as cotton. This will help keep you cool and comfortable as you navigate the bustling streets and visit the various temples and markets.

One imperative item to carry with you at all times is a refillable water bottle. Dehydration is a real risk in Chiang Mai’s climate, especially if you’re not used to the heat. By staying hydrated, you’ll be able to enjoy all the sights and sounds the city has to offer without feeling drained or fatigued.

It’s also wise to plan your outdoor activities during the cooler parts of the day, either early in the morning or later in the afternoon. This way, you can avoid the intense midday sun and reduce your risk of heat-related illnesses like heatstroke.

Staying Hydrated and Sun-Protected

Climate in Chiang Mai can be unforgiving, with temperatures often soaring above 30 degrees Celsius. To stay comfortable and safe, remember to drink plenty of fluids throughout the day. Hydration is key to preventing heat exhaustion and maintaining your energy levels during your adventures in the city.

Mais, it’s imperative to protect your skin from the strong tropical sun. Make sure to apply a high SPF sunscreen, wear a hat, and use sunglasses to shield your eyes. The combination of heat and humidity in Chiang Mai can be taxing on your body, so taking these precautions will help you enjoy your time in the city to the fullest.

Plus, don’t forget to take breaks in the shade whenever possible. Whether you’re exploring the ancient temples or wandering through the vibrant markets, finding moments to rest and cool down will ensure that you can make the most of your Chiang Mai experience.

Step 2: Visit Wat Chiang Man, A Must-See Attraction

History and Significance of the Temple

One Temple not to be missed in Chiang Mai is Wat Chiang Man, the oldest temple in the city. Built in 1296 by King Mengrai, this temple holds great historical significance as it was the residence of the King during the construction of the city. The temple is also home to two very important Buddha statues – the Crystal Buddha and the Marble Buddha, both of which are highly revered by locals and visitors alike.

Wat Chiang Man is not only a historical site but also a spiritual centre for many locals who come to pray and seek blessings. The intricate architecture of the temple, with its traditional Lanna style buildings and beautiful gardens, truly transports you back in time to ancient Thailand.

Visiting Wat Chiang Man gives you a unique insight into the rich cultural heritage of Chiang Mai and is a great way to start your exploration of this enchanting city.

What to Expect During Your Visit

On your visit to Wat Chiang Man, expect to be mesmerised by the serene atmosphere and stunning architecture of the temple complex. You will see monks going about their daily routines, offering prayers and blessings to visitors. Take a moment to observe and immerse yourself in the peaceful ambiance.

One attraction not to be missed is the Elephant Chedi, a unique structure adorned with elephant sculptures, symbolising the close relationship between elephants and the Thai people. Don’t forget to explore the beautiful murals and intricate wood carvings that decorate the buildings, each with its own story to tell.

As you wander through the temple grounds, keep an eye out for the ancient stone tablets inscribed with Buddhist scriptures and teachings, offering insights into the spiritual beliefs of the local community. Visitors are encouraged to show respect by dressing modestly and behaving quietly while exploring this sacred site.

Step 3: Explore the Old City Walls and Moat

A Brief History of the City’s Fortifications

Alluring and steeped in history, the ancient city of Chiang Mai is surrounded by majestic walls and a protective moat that date back to its founding in the 13th century. The fortified city was built as a defence against Burmese invasions and served as the capital of the Lanna Kingdom for centuries. The walls, made of brick and earth, stretch for approximately 1.6 kilometres on each side, encompassing the historic Old City.

Walking Tours and Self-Guided Exploration

For those looking to probe deeper into Chiang Mai’s rich past, commenceing on a walking tour or self-guided exploration of the Old City walls and moat is a must. Numerous companies offer guided tours that provide fascinating insights into the history and significance of the fortifications. Alternatively, you can opt for a leisurely stroll along the well-preserved walls to appreciate the architectural mastery and strategic design of the ancient defences.


The Old City walls and moat offer a captivating glimpse into Chiang Mai’s storied past, making it a truly immersive experience for history enthusiasts and casual visitors alike. Walking tours often highlight key landmarks such as Tha Phae Gate and the four corner bastions, allowing you to uncover the secrets of this ancient walled city at your own pace.

Step 4: Wander Through the Night Bazaar

Now, let’s probe the vibrant and bustling world of Chiang Mai’s famous Night Bazaar. As the sun sets, the streets come alive with a kaleidoscope of colours, sounds, and scents. Navigating through the crowds and myriad of vendors can be an adventure in itself. Here are some crucial

Tips for Navigating the Crowds and Vendors

to make the most out of your experience:

  • Stay alert: Keep an eye on your belongings in the busy crowds.
  • Haggle wisely: Bargaining is part of the fun, but remember to be respectful.
  • Try local snacks: Sample delicious street food as you browse.

After a night of immersing yourself in the lively atmosphere of the Night Bazaar, you’ll be sure to have stories to tell and treasures to cherish.

Now, onto the exciting task of

Finding Unique Souvenirs and Local Delicacies

. The Night Bazaar is a treasure trove of handcrafted items, from intricate jewellery to vibrant textiles. Local artisans showcase their skills, offering you the chance to take home one-of-a-kind souvenirs that reflect Chiang Mai’s rich cultural heritage.

Vendors at the Night Bazaar take pride in their creations, making each purchase a special experience. Whether you’re looking for traditional handicrafts or contemporary art pieces, you’re bound to find something that catches your eye. After a night of exploring the stalls and interacting with the friendly vendors, you’ll have a deeper appreciation for the local craftsmanship and the warm hospitality of the people.

Delicacies such as grilled skewers, spicy salads, and sweet treats await food enthusiasts at every turn. The Night Bazaar is a culinary delight, offering a tantalising array of local delicacies that will surely satisfy your taste buds. Don’t miss the opportunity to savour these authentic dishes made with fresh ingredients and bursting with flavour.

Step 5: Discover Chiang Mai’s Street Food Scene

Despite the plethora of temples and cultural landmarks in Chiang Mai, exploring the city’s vibrant street food scene is an necessary part of the experience. The bustling markets and roadside stalls offer a delightful array of flavours and aromas that are sure to tantalise your taste buds.

Popular Dishes and Drinks to Try

On your culinary adventure through Chiang Mai, be sure to sample iconic dishes such as Khao Soi, a fragrant coconut curry noodle soup, and Sai Oua, a delicious northern Thai sausage bursting with herbs and spices. Wash it all down with a refreshing glass of Cha Yen, Thai iced tea, or Nam Dok Mai, a sweet floral drink made from local fruits.

For the more adventurous foodies, explore exotic delicacies like fried insects, crispy pork knuckle, and Khanom Krok, coconut rice pancakes. Don’t miss out on trying the famous Mango Sticky Rice, a delectable dessert that perfectly balances the sweetness of ripe mangoes with creamy coconut-infused sticky rice.

Immerse yourself in the vibrant street food culture by savouring the fusion of flavours and spices that make Chiang Mai a culinary paradise for food lovers from around the world. Remember to embrace the chaos of the markets, indulge in the local delicacies, and discover new favourite dishes along the way.

Food Safety and Etiquette

To fully enjoy Chiang Mai’s street food scene, it’s necessary to prioritise food safety and respect local etiquette. Avoid eating from stalls with questionable hygiene practices and opt for vendors with a high turnover of fresh food. Additionally, always carry hand sanitiser or wet wipes to clean your hands before enjoying your meal.

This bustling food culture encourages communal seating, so don’t be surprised if you have to share a table with strangers. Embrace the social aspect of dining and don’t be afraid to try new dishes recommended by locals. Remember to show gratitude by saying “Khob Khun Ka” (Thank you) to female vendors and “Khob Khun Krub” to male vendors after enjoying their delicious creations.

Step 6: Take a Cooking Class and Learn Local Recipes

Many travellers visiting Chiang Mai are eager to immerse themselves in the culture by taking a cooking class and learning local recipes. With the vast array of cooking schools in the city, choosing the right one can be a daunting task. However, taking a cooking class is not only a chance to learn how to recreate authentic Thai dishes but also an opportunity to examine into the rich culinary traditions of the region.

Choosing the Right Cooking School

On your quest to find the perfect cooking school, consider factors such as class size, menu variety, instructor experience, and the hands-on opportunities available. Look for schools that source fresh ingredients from local markets, offer a range of dishes to prepare, and provide insights into Thai cooking techniques. Reading reviews from previous students can also give you an idea of the overall experience and quality of teaching at the school.

Hands-On Experience and Recipe Takeaways

The best part of attending a cooking class is undoubtedly the hands-on experience of preparing traditional Thai dishes under the guidance of expert chefs. From mastering the art of balancing sweet, sour, salty, and spicy flavours to learning the proper techniques for stir-frying and curry making, you’ll gain invaluable skills that you can replicate back home. Most cooking schools also provide recipe cards or booklets so that you can recreate the dishes with confidence in your own kitchen.

The experience of taking a cooking class in Chiang Mai goes beyond just learning recipes; it’s a chance to connect with local culture through food. By exploring the local markets, selecting fresh ingredients, and understanding the significance of each spice and herb, you’ll develop a deeper appreciation for Thai cuisine. Whether you’re a novice cook or a seasoned chef, the knowledge and techniques you acquire during the class will stay with you long after you leave Chiang Mai.

Recipe: As you launch on your culinary adventure in Chiang Mai, be sure to taste and learn to prepare iconic dishes such as Pad Thai, Green Curry, Som Tum (Papaya Salad), and Mango Sticky Rice. These recipes showcase the diverse flavours and ingredients that define Thai cuisine, and mastering them will allow you to bring a taste of Thailand into your own kitchen.

Step 7: Visit the Doi Suthep-Pui National Park

Keep on the adventure trail by visiting the stunning Doi Suthep-Pui National Park during your exploration of Chiang Mai. This natural haven offers a plethora of exciting activities that will leave you in awe of Thailand’s natural beauty. From lush greenery to majestic waterfalls, this park has it all.

Hiking Trails and Scenic Views

One of the best ways to experience the Doi Suthep-Pui National Park is by commenceing on one of its many hiking trails. These trails lead you through diverse landscapes, from dense forests to open meadows, each offering scenic views that will take your breath away. Make sure to pack plenty of water, snacks, and your camera to capture the breathtaking vistas along the way.

Wildlife and Conservation Efforts

Step into nature and discover the diverse wildlife that calls Doi Suthep-Pui National Park home. From colourful butterflies to elusive mountain goats, the park is teeming with unique species waiting to be observed. Learn about the conservation efforts in place to protect these animals and their habitats, ensuring a sustainable future for generations to come.

Step into the shoes of a conservationist and gain insight into the important work being done to preserve the natural beauty of this national park. By visiting, you are not only enriching your travel experience but also contributing to the protection of Thailand’s precious ecosystems.

Step 8: Explore the Chiang Mai Nightlife

Bars, Clubs, and Live Music Venues

Not a single visitor to Chiang Mai should miss out on experiencing the vibrant nightlife scene that the city has to offer. From bustling bars serving up exotic cocktails to lively clubs with DJs spinning tunes into the early hours, there is something for everyone. Head to the Nimmanhaemin Road area for a trendy vibe, or explore the Old City for more laid-back venues. Don’t forget to check out the live music venues where you can enjoy traditional Thai music or modern cover bands.

Safety Precautions and Responsible Drinking

Any traveller looking to enjoy the Chiang Mai nightlife should always keep safety in mind. Stick to well-lit and busy areas, especially when exploring late at night. Avoid drinking too much alcohol and be aware of your surroundings at all times. It’s advisable to go out in a group, particularly if you’re not familiar with the area. Remember to never leave your drink unattended and to watch out for any shady characters.

Music sets the tone for a memorable night out, but it’s vital to be cautious. Make sure to not accept drinks from strangers and pace yourself throughout the evening. If you plan on partying late, arrange for safe transportation back to your accommodation in advance. Enjoy the beats and rhythms of the night, but keep your wits about you to ensure a fun and safe experience.

Drinking in moderation is key to a successful night out in Chiang Mai. While it’s tempting to indulge in the variety of cocktails and local brews, it’s important to know your limits. Opt for bottled water between alcoholic drinks to stay hydrated and avoid the pitfalls of excessive drinking. By being responsible and making smart choices, you can fully immerse yourself in the exciting Chiang Mai nightlife while staying safe and making unforgettable memories.

Step 9: Learn About Chiang Mai’s Rich History and Culture

Unlike other bustling cities in Thailand, Chiang Mai offers a unique glimpse into the country’s rich history and vibrant culture. To truly immerse yourself in the essence of this charming city, take the time to explore its numerous museums, galleries, cultural performances, and workshops.

Museums and Galleries to Visit

For a deeper understanding of Chiang Mai’s past, visit the Chiang Mai City Arts & Cultural Centre. Here, you can explore exhibits that showcase the city’s evolution from ancient times to the modern day. Another must-visit is the Tribal Museum, which highlights the diverse heritage of the region’s indigenous tribes. Don’t miss the Old Chiang Mai Cultural Center, where you can learn about traditional Lanna culture through interactive displays and workshops.

Cultural Performances and Workshops

Museums offer a glimpse into the past, but to experience Chiang Mai’s culture in real-time, attend one of its many cultural performances or workshops. Witness traditional Thai dance at the Khum Khantoke Cultural Center, or learn the art of making intricate silverware at the Silver Temple Gallery. For a truly immersive experience, participate in a traditional Thai cooking class and savour the delicious flavours of this unique cuisine.

Cultural experiences in Chiang Mai are not just limited to watching performances or attending workshops. Engage with local artisans at the Chiang Mai Celadon Ceramic Village, where you can try your hand at crafting beautiful ceramic pieces. Join a meditation retreat at one of the city’s many temples to gain insight into local spiritual practices, or attend a Batik painting workshop to create your own piece of traditional art.

Step 10: Take a Day Trip to the Bo Sang Umbrella Village

Not far from Chiang Mai lies the charming Bo Sang Umbrella Village, a perfect destination for tourists looking to immerse themselves in local culture and craftsmanship. This village is renowned for its exquisite handcrafted umbrellas, parasols, and fans, all made using traditional techniques that have been passed down through generations.

Traditional Crafts and Local Artisans

Crafts at the Bo Sang Umbrella Village are truly a sight to behold. Skilled artisans can be seen meticulously painting intricate designs on delicate paper umbrellas, creating stunning pieces of art that are both beautiful and functional. Visitors have the unique opportunity to witness these artisans at work and even try their hand at painting their umbrellas under their expert guidance.

The village also offers workshops where you can learn more about the history of umbrella-making in the region and the significance of different designs. It’s a fantastic way to gain insight into the local traditions and the craftsmanship involved in creating these masterpieces.

Shopping for Unique Souvenirs

The Bo Sang Umbrella Village is the ideal place to shop for unique souvenirs to take home. In addition to the exquisite hand-painted umbrellas, visitors can browse through a wide selection of locally made handicrafts, including silk products, fans, and decorative items. Each piece reflects the rich cultural heritage of the region and makes for a meaningful and memorable gift.

While exploring the village, be sure to visit the numerous small shops and stalls lining the streets, where you can find a variety of traditional Thai crafts and artworks. From colourful lanterns to intricate wood carvings, there is no shortage of unique and authentic treasures waiting to be discovered.

Village of Bo Sang is a delightful destination that offers a glimpse into the rich cultural heritage and artistic traditions of Northern Thailand. Visitors can explore the traditional crafts, observe skilled artisans at work, and shop for unique souvenirs to remember their trip by. It’s an experience that combines creativity, craftsmanship, and cultural immersion in a truly enchanting setting.

Essential Information for Your Trip

Getting Around Chiang Mai

One of the first things to consider when exploring Chiang Mai is how you will get around this vibrant city. The most convenient and popular mode of transportation is by tuk-tuk, a three-wheeled motorised vehicle that can zip you around the city streets with ease. For longer journeys or a more comfortable ride, opt for a songthaew, a red truck-like taxi commonly used by both locals and tourists.

Another great way to explore the city is by renting a scooter, which gives you the freedom to navigate the narrow lanes and bustling markets at your own pace. Be sure to wear a helmet and drive cautiously, as traffic in Chiang Mai can be hectic, especially during peak hours. If you prefer a more leisurely option, you can also use the Grab app to book a private car or taxi for a hassle-free journey.

For those who prefer walking, Chiang Mai’s Old City is easily navigable on foot, allowing you to soak in the rich history and culture at your own leisurely pace. Just be mindful of the occasional motorbike whizzing past, and always use designated pedestrian crossings for safety.

Accommodation Options and Booking Tips

Getting the right accommodation is key to a memorable trip in Chiang Mai. From luxurious resorts to budget-friendly hostels, the city offers a wide range of options to suit every traveller’s needs. Booking in advance is advisable, especially during peak tourist seasons, to secure the best deals and preferred locations.

  • Hotels – Provide comfort and convenience, with amenities like swimming pools and on-site restaurants.
  • Guesthouses – Offer a more intimate experience, often run by local families and providing a homely atmosphere.
  • Hostels – Ideal for budget travellers, with dormitory-style accommodation and communal spaces for socialising.

Perceiving the unique charm of each neighbourhood can help you choose the best location for your stay, whether you prefer the bustling Night Bazaar area or the tranquil surroundings of the Nimmanhaemin Road.

Understanding the varied accommodation options in Chiang Mai can enrich your travel experience. While exploring the city, keep in mind the importance of safety precautions on the roads and the warm hospitality of the local residents. Embrace the opportunity to immerse yourself in the rich tapestry of Thai culture and create lasting memories in this enchanting city.

Safety and Precautions in Chiang Mai

After exploring the cultural wonders of Chiang Mai, it’s crucial to ensure your safety and be aware of potential scams that tourists might encounter. Being a popular destination, scam artists often target unsuspecting travellers. Here are some common scams and how to avoid them:

Common Scams and How to Avoid Them

Common scams in Chiang Mai include overcharging for tuk-tuk rides, gem scams, and fake tour packages. To avoid falling victim, always negotiate prices beforehand and research reputable tour companies. Be cautious of strangers offering unsolicited advice or deals that seem too good to be true. Keep in mind, if something feels off, trust your instincts and walk away.

Furthermore, be wary of individuals posing as officials asking for fines or pretending that attractions are closed. Always verify with legitimate authorities and only book tours or transportation through trusted sources. By staying vigilant and informed, you can safeguard yourself from falling prey to these scams and enjoy a worry-free experience in Chiang Mai.

Staying Healthy and Dealing with Emergencies

Them have comprehensive travel insurance that covers medical emergencies. In case of illness or injury, seek help from reputable hospitals like Chiang Mai Ram Hospital or Bangkok Hospital Chiang Mai. Pharmacies are widespread, but always check the authenticity of medications before purchasing. Remember to stay hydrated in the tropical climate and apply sunscreen regularly to avoid sunburn.

Plus, it’s vital to maintain personal hygiene to prevent common travel-related illnesses. Wash hands frequently, consume bottled water, and be cautious of street food cleanliness. In case of emergencies, dial 1669 for ambulance services. By prioritising your health and taking necessary precautions, you can fully enjoy your adventures in Chiang Mai without any worries.

Responsible Travel in Chiang Mai

Once again, as responsible travellers, it is crucial to consider the environmental impact and promote sustainable tourism practices while exploring the beautiful city of Chiang Mai.

Environmental Impact and Sustainable Tourism

An vital step to follow for reducing our environmental impact in Chiang Mai is to be mindful of our waste generation. By carrying a reusable water bottle and saying no to single-use plastics, we can contribute positively to the preservation of this stunning region’s natural beauty. Additionally, supporting eco-friendly accommodations and tour operators that prioritise sustainability practices is vital for promoting sustainable tourism in Chiang Mai.

Furthermore, engaging in responsible wildlife tourism is critical to safeguarding the local flora and fauna. Avoid activities that exploit animals, such as elephant riding or visiting venues that promote animal cruelty. Opt instead for ethical encounters, such as visiting responsible sanctuaries that focus on animal welfare and conservation efforts.

To truly embrace responsible travel in Chiang Mai, consider offsetting your carbon footprint by participating in volunteering programmes that support environmental initiatives within the region. By actively engaging in sustainability projects, you can leave a positive impact on the local environment and contribute to the long-term well-being of Chiang Mai.

Supporting Local Communities and Businesses

On top of being mindful of the environmental impact, supporting local communities and businesses is crucial for ensuring the socio-economic sustainability of Chiang Mai. By choosing to dine at locally-owned restaurants and purchasing souvenirs from artisan markets, you can directly contribute to the livelihoods of the local population.

This support goes a long way in preserving the unique cultural heritage of Chiang Mai and empowering local communities to thrive amidst the growing tourism industry. Additionally, participating in community-based tourism initiatives allows travellers to engage with the local way of life authentically and forge meaningful connections with the residents.

To wrap up

To those seeking a truly enriching adventure in Chiang Mai, following the 10 crucial steps outlined in this guide is crucial. From marvelling at the ancient beauty of Wat Chiang Man to navigating the bustling markets and tasting the delectable local cuisine, each step offers a unique experience that captures the essence of this vibrant city. By immersing yourself in the local culture, history, and traditions, you can truly appreciate all that Chiang Mai has to offer.

Exploring Chiang Mai is not just about ticking off tourist spots; it’s about engaging with the soul of the city. By venturing beyond the well-trodden paths, you can discover hidden gems and local secrets that will make your journey truly unforgettable. Whether you’re wandering through the old city’s narrow lanes or trekking through the lush mountainsides, there is always something new and intriguing to uncover in this captivating destination.

As you navigate through the vibrant streets, fragrant markets, and serene temples of Chiang Mai, you will find yourself immersed in a tapestry of sights, sounds, and flavours that will leave a lasting impression. Embrace the slower pace of life, engage with the warm-hearted locals, and savour each moment of your journey. Chiang Mai beckons with its irresistible charm and unparalleled beauty, ready to captivate and enchant those who are willing to explore its wonders.


Q: Why should I visit Wat Chiang Man in Chiang Mai?

A: Wat Chiang Man is the oldest temple in Chiang Mai and offers a glimpse into the city’s rich history and culture. It houses ancient artifacts and beautiful architecture, making it a must-visit for history enthusiasts.

Q: What are some necessary steps for exploring Chiang Mai?

A: Some necessary steps for exploring Chiang Mai include visiting iconic temples like Wat Phra Singh, trying local street food at the Night Bazaar, exploring the ancient city of Wiang Kum Kam, and experiencing the serenity of Doi Suthep-Pui National Park.

Q: How can I travel around Chiang Mai efficiently?

A: To travel around Chiang Mai efficiently, you can use the city’s affordable and convenient red trucks called “songthaews” or rent a scooter to navigate the city at your own pace. Tuk-tuks and taxis are also available for shorter distances.

Q: What should I pack for a trip to Chiang Mai?

A: When packing for a trip to Chiang Mai, it is advisable to bring light and breathable clothing, comfortable walking shoes for temple visits, a reusable water bottle to stay hydrated, sunscreen, insect repellent, and a rain jacket during the rainy season.

Q: Is it safe to explore Chiang Mai as a solo traveller?

A: Chiang Mai is generally considered safe for solo travellers, with a low crime rate and friendly locals. However, it is always important to stay vigilant, especially at night, and follow basic safety precautions like avoiding poorly lit areas and keeping your belongings secure.